Notes and References

 
preface
1 Trans. John Stevens, One Robe, One Bowl: The Zen Poetry of Ryokan, Weatherhill, 1984, p.65.
2 Trans. Wai-tao, `Dhyana for Beginners' in A Buddhist Bible, ed.  Dwight Goddard, Beacon, Boston 1970.
introduction
3 A Buddhist Bible, p.437.
4 The Dhammapada I, 1.
5 Shunryu Suzuki, Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind, Weatherhill, 1983, p.34.
6 Thich Nhat Hanh, The Sun My Heart, Parallax, Berkeley 1988, p.62.
PART ONE
chapter one
7 Trans.  Nanamoli, The Path of Purification, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy (Sri Lanka) 1975, p.300.
chapter two
8 Trans.  Ayya Khema, Being Nobody, Going Nowhere, Wisdom, London 1987, p.96.
9 Metta (Pali) or maitri (Sanskrit), kindness or friendliness.  Bhavana means `making
to become', `development', and even `meditation'.  Pali, the language of one of the main sources of Buddhist scriptures, is used for most technical terms in this book.
10 Trans.  H. V. Guenther, The Jewel Ornament of Liberation, Rider, London 1970, p.16-19.
11 Chi-I in A Buddhist Bible, p.479.
chapter three
12  Chi-I in A Buddhist Bible, p.482.
13 Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking Glass.
14 C.M. Chen, Buddhist Meditation, Systematic and Practical, published privately, Kalimpong 1962, p.72.
15 With acknowledgements to Sangharakshita, Vision and Transformation: An Introduction to the Buddha's Noble Eightfold Path, Windhorse, Glasgow 1990, p.132.
16 These are simplified renderings of the traditional Pali terms used in the Satipatthana Sutta (the classic source for the Buddha's teaching on mindfulness). 
The four Foundations of Mindfulness given there are body (kaya), feeling (vedana), mind or mental state (citta), and mental object (dhamma).  The first two (body and feeling), are in accordance with the traditional list.  `Emotion' is straightforward as a rendition of the third foundation, since the sutta describes citta mostly in terms of emotional content (the mind with lust, the mind with hate, etc.).  In the fourth foundation, the practice of mindfulness of dhammas is described in terms of the objects of thought, rather than the faculty of thought itself, though of course to do this one needs awareness of one's thoughts! 
17 Walt Whitman, `I Sing The Body Electric', in Leaves of Grass, Penguin, London 1986, p.116.
18 D.H.Lawrence, `Thought', In Selected Poems, Penguin, London, p.227.
19 For practical purposes, Buddhism regards the thinking mind as a sixth sense - it grasps onto an idea in more or less the same way as our eyes fix onto an object of sight.
20 These three key aspects are known as the Three Jewels, or most precious things.
21 Trans. Sangharakshita, from the Mangala Sutta, in Complete Poems 1941-1994, Windhorse, Birmingham 1995, p.473
22 See also Note
29.
23 Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind, p.21.
PART TWO
chapter four
24 Complete Poems 1941-1994, op. cit., p.31
25 A Buddhist Bible, p.454.
26 Trans.  T. W. Rhys Davids, Samanaphala Sutta, Digha Nikaya I, 74, Pali Text Society, London 1977.
27 We will come across this term again in Chapter Ten.
28 I would not recommend taking up one of these practices on a regular basis until a good foundation of Mindfulness of Breathing and Metta Bhavana are established.  Without a qualified teacher, it may be more difficult to sustain this kind of exercise long term.  But if you are curious, there is no harm in trying it out.
29 There is a considerable difference in quality between the reflex image and the samapatti phenomena referred to in Chapter Three.  The samapattis are generally somewhat coarse and often feel a little odd, though not unpleasantly so.  The reflex image is definitely `friendlier', and indeed can be extremely inspiring in character.
chapter five
30 Whatever we think of the Buddhist doctrine of rebirth, our present life is obviously the important one! References to previous and future lives should not be taken to mean that a belief in rebirth is a necessary requirement for practising meditation or developing spiritually.  However, most Buddhists do believe in rebirth, and there is convincing evidence to support their view.  For a good analysis of this issue which includes a review of other relevant literature, Martin Willson's Rebirth and the Western Buddhist, Wisdom, London 1987, is highly recommended.
31 C.M. Chen, Buddhist Meditation, Systematic and Practical, published privately, Kalimpong 1962, p.26-7.
32 Note that the first four dhyanas (i.e.  those within the rupa-loka) are known as the rupa-dhyanas.
33 A Buddhist Bible, p.439.
34 A Buddhist Bible, p.468.
PART THREE
chapter six
35 Samadhi is quite a well known term.  In Buddhism it is used differently in different contexts.  It may refer simply to dhyana (samatha), but it often refers to a state of very deep dhyana that is also imbued with a particular vipassana realization.  Accordingly some suttas refer to many varieties of samadhi.
36 A Buddhist Bible, p.455-6.
37 H. D. Thoreau, Walden, Harper & Row, London 1961.
38 A Buddhist Bible, p.444-5.
39 Adapted from Samatha, (Chen's Booklet series XIV), published privately, Kalimpong 1963.
chapter seven
40 In the UK write to the Society for the Teachers of Alexander Technique at 10 London House, 266 Fulham Road, London SW10 9EL.  They will send an address list of all AT teachers.
chapter eight
41 From `Burnt Norton', the first section of  T. S. Eliot's Four Quartets, Collected Poems, Faber & Faber, London 1963.
42 The Path of Purification, p.103.
43 A Buddhist Bible, p.458.
44 The Path of Purification, p.161. 
Note that the translator, Nanamoli, renders the dhyana factor of vitakka, rendered throughout this book as 'initial thought', as 'applied thought' - which could be confusing, since I employ that term for the dhyana factor of vicara. Nanamoli renders vicara as 'sustained thought'.
45 This and the next four terms are in Pali.  Together with passaddhi, these are known as the six qualitative factors, figuring in a list of nineteen sobhana cetasikas (beautiful mental states) in the Theravadin Abhidhamma.
chapter nine
46 From John Lennon, Imagine, EMI, 1981.
47 From The Jewel Ornament of Liberation, p.39, quoting the rDzogs chen kun bzan bla ma.
48 These are hatred, egoistic pride, greed, envy, and spiritual ignorance.
49 From The Jewel Ornament of Liberation, p.38, quoting the rDzogs chen kun bzan bla ma.
50 List according to Gampopa, who seems to have the fullest.  (Detailed at length in The Jewel Ornament of Liberation.) Each of the four Tibetan schools has a slightly different approach.  This list is from the Kagyupa School.
51 Sangharakshita, `Advice to a Young Poet', in The Religion of Art, Windhorse, Glasgow 1988, p.135.
52 Trans.  F. L. Woodward, Udana V, v.  from Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon Part II, Oxford University Press, London 1948, p.67.
chapter ten
53 From the Mettanisamsa Sutta, Anguttara Nikaya V.  342.
54 The Theravada commentarial tradition.  See The Path of Purification, p.348.
55 Dilgo Khyentse Rimpoche, Editions Padmakara, 1990, p.12.
56 The `Great Way', or the tradition that encourages the pursuit of Enlightenment for the sake of all beings, rather than just for one's own personal spiritual development.
57 See Mettakatha of Patisambhida-magga and Vajiranana Mahathera, Buddhist Meditation, Buddhist Missionary Society, Malaysia 1975, pp.288ff.
58 Bardo Thödöl, composed by Padmasambhava, 8th century CE.  Translated by W.Y.  Evans-Wentz as The Tibetan Book of the Dead, Oxford University Press, London 1984, p.202.
59 The Trikaya doctrine involves three (tri-) levels of perceiving the Enlightened consciousness.  Kaya literally means `body' or form.  The Nirmanakaya is the human historical Buddha as perceived by ordinary sense-based consciousness, the Sambhogakaya his deeper qualities as perceived by visionary, dhyanic consciousness (in terms of archetypal, ideal form), and the Dhammakaya (Sanskrit Dharmakaya) as the essential Buddha-nature perceived with transcendental insight.
60 Extracted from the `Song of Transience with Eight Similes', trans.  G.C.C.Chang, The Hundred Thousand Songs of Milarepa, Shambhala, Boulder (USA) 1989, pp.204ff.
61 The Path of Purification, p.700-1.
62 Trans.  F. L. Woodward, Some Sayings of the Buddha, Oxford University Press, London 1960, p.213.
63 The cyclical nidanas are explained in detail in Sangharakshita, A Survey of Buddhism (6th edition), Tharpa, London 1987, pp.94ff.  The spiral nidanas are explained in Sangharakshita, The Three Jewels, Windhorse, Glasgow 1991, pp.110ff; see also Alex Kennedy, The Buddhist Vision, Rider, London 1992.  One
source in the Pali Canon for the spiral nidanas is the Nidana-Vagga of the Samyutta-Nikaya.
64 Collated and systematized by Buddhaghosha from the Pali Canon.  See The Path of Purification, p.112.
65 Bodhisattvas are either Enlightened already, or beings who are established `on course' for Enlightenment.
66 See Paul Williams, Mahayana Buddhism, Routledge, London 1989, pp.217ff.
67 Trans.  Sangharakshita. 
 

Index items

Items from the printed edition – perhaps of use now for searching in the text, and maybe one day to be used in compiling an index for these pages.  
 
absorption factors 174
access concentration 66ff, 75, 76, 86, 91,
164, 166, 168, 173
acknowledgement 54, 154
acquired image 76
actions 6, 81, 108, 110, see also - karma
activity 119
addiction 206, 218
agility 175
ahimsa 107
alcohol 107
Alexander Technique 135, 144, 265
alienation 34
anger 82, see also hatred
ankles 133, 136
antidotes 54, 157, 237ff, see also working
anxiety 72, 92, see also restlessness and~
appana 205
applied thought 70, 72, 89, 174
archetypal images 226
archetype 83
arching 129
art 110
arupa-dhyanas 856, 96
arupa-loka 856
asanas 140
assimilation 117
associative thinking 178
atmosphere 112
attachment 221
attention 13
authority 108
Avalokiteshvara 186
avijja 220
awareness 44, see also mindfulness
of the body 48, 124
 
back 1223, 129, 142
balanced concentration 173
balancing effort 56
bardo 210
beauty 240, 242
becoming 81, 221
behaviour 64, see also actions
benefits (of meditation) 37, 57, 194, 231
bereavement 92
bhava 221
bhavana 263
bhavana-maya panna 186
birth 218, 221
bliss 63, 712, 220
Bodhichitta 185
Bodhisattva 82, 224, 266
bodily awareness 48, 124,
see also - mindfulness of the body
body 45, 49, 122, 166, 249, 257
body language 45
Brahma-viharas 96, 192, 203, 225
breadth 156, 188
breath 14ff, 167
Buddha 33, 67, 69, 75, 83, 226
Buddhahood 81
Buddhism 32, 79, 803, 1089
Buddhist centre 39
Buddhist terms 192
 
calm 220
chair 127, 134
change 82, 94, 210
chanting 261, see also mantra
characteristics of existence 91
Chen, C.M.  114
chest 130, 133
Chi-I 1, 3
Christianity 94
cinta-maya panna 183
classes (in meditation) 38, 132
cobbler's pose 142
colour 228
communication 113, 115, see also speech
compassion 69, 195, 246
complacency 84
conceit 211
concentration 13, 49, 66, 76, 98, 106, 134,
156, 164, 171, 220, 2301
concentration object 15, 205,
see also meditation object
conceptual understanding 90
conditionality 80, 244,
see also dependence
conditioned co-production
see dependent origination
conditioning 103, 108
conditioning factors 217
conditions 111, 114
confidence 9, 21, 24, 34, 123, 257, 258,
see also faith
conscience 108
consciousness 7, 63, 65, 69, 85, 86, 214,
216, 220, see also higher~
consciousness element 214
considering the consequences 54, 238,
243, 249, 254, 258
contact 28, 221
contemplation 238, see also reflection
of conditionality 217
of impermanence 206
contentment 107
counterpart image 76
craving 96, 207, 218, 221, 244,
see also desire
cross-legged posture 137, 142
cruelty 197
cultivating the opposite 55, 238, 242, 248,
252, 257
cushion 129, 134
cyclic existence 218
nidanas 220
 
dakini 93
dana 107
death 82, 207, 221,
see also impermanence
decomposition 207
dependence 111, see also conditionality
dependent origination 218
desire 52, 72, 82, 238, see also craving
devas 83
development see spiritual development
development of friendliness 23ff
devotional practice 261
Dharma see Buddhism
Dharma seeds 185, 219
dhyana 56, 6376, 845, 8990, 118,
174, 201
dhyana factors 706, 91, 153, 166,
201, 220
Dhyana for Beginners 1, 263
diary see meditation notebook
difficult person 26, 30
difficulties 58, see also hindrances
directed thinking 179
discomfort 123, see also pain
discussion 185
disentanglement 223
disinterested emotion 96
dissatisfaction 219
distractions 13, 20, 43, 49, 66, 117,
see also hindrances
divine being 83, see also God
doubt 72, 215, 257
doubt and indecision 53, 257ff
dreams 7, 117
drifting 165, 169, 171, 173
drugs 94
drug abuse 107
duck walk 136
dukkha 219, see also unsatisfactoriness
dullness 111, 114, see also sloth, torpor
 
earth element 212
effort 157, see also balancing~
ego 95
elements see Six Element Practice
emotion(s) 33, 34, 46, 49, 96, 124
see also feelings
emotional attachment 93
investment 73
satisfaction 242
truthfulness 34, 35
emptiness 97, see also shunyata
ending (the meditation) see finishing
enemy see difficult person
energy 117, 124, 166, 228, 255
enjoyment 41, see also happiness,
joy, pleasure
Enlightenment 4, 69, 82, 184, 223
 
enthusiasm 148, 151
environment see place
envy 200
equanimity 73, 74, 201, 204
ethics 106, 108, 252
example 161
excitement 114
exercise(s) 110, 116, 134, 257
experiences 57
external conditions 41, 104, 106
eyes 253
 
faith 54, 154, 219, 261, see also confidence
far enemy 193, 197, 200, 202
fear 92
of feeling 199
feeling(s) 28, 34, 46, 48, 49, 59, 218,
219, 221, see also emotions
finishing (the meditation) 19, 40
fire element 213
first dhyana 68
fitness 116
five hindrances see hindrances
five poisons 191
flexibility 142
focus 156, 188
food 116, 257
formless absorptions 86
dhyanas 201
forty methods 226
Foundations of Mindfulness 44, 48, 230,
232, 233, 263
fourth absorption 87
dhyana 69, 74
freedom 107, 223
friendliness 23ff, 195, see also metta
friends 64, 80, 110
friendship 33, 79, 184
full lotus 128, 134
 
generosity 107
goal 8
God 94, see also divine being
gods 84, 96
Going for Refuge 55
good friend 26, 29
greed see craving
guarding the gates of the senses 109, 241
guilt 54, 68, 107, 108, 154
 
habit 94, 221
hands 130, 133
happiness 36, 69, 82, 85, 106, 199,
see also enjoyment, joy
hatha yoga 135, 140
hatred 96, 193, see also anger
head 124, 130
heart 121
hell-being 83
higher states (of consciousness) 63ff, 67,
71, 85, 119
hindrances 51, 66, 72, 76, 89, 124, 237ff,
see also distractions
Hinduism 94
hips 137, 140, 141, 142
horizontal integration 65
horrified anxiety 198
hungry ghost 83
 
ignorance 90, 92, 2178, 220
ill will 52, 72, 242ff
images 29
impermanence 812, 8993, 184, 207,
210, see also death
indifference 202
individuality 95
information 117
initial thought 70, 72, 89, 174
initiative 109
inner conditions 119
insecurity 82
insight 81, 87, 90, 93, 969, 187, 195,
201, 204
meditation 88, see also vipassana
inspiration 41, 59, 69, 110, 158, 255
integration 63ff, 69, 71, 86, 88, 95, 96, 165
intellect 99
internal conditions 104, 113
introspection 148, 150
irrational guilt 108, 154
Islam 94
 
jara-marana 221
jati 221
joy 199, 219, see also happiness
Jung, C.G.  66
Just Sitting 229
 
kama-loka 77, 85, 86
kamacchanda 238
kammannata 175
kammathanas 2267
karma 109, see also actions
karma-formations 220
karma-vipaka 109
karuna 195, see also compassion
Karuna Bhavana 195, 204
kasina 75, 227
knees 133, 136, 138, 140, 141, 142
knowledge and vision 220
knowledge of the destruction 223
kukkucca 248
 
lahuta 175
lakkhanas see characteristics of existence
Lankavatara Sutra 99
legs 140, 142
levitation 71
life-style 104, 106, 251
limitations 118
listening 181
loving kindness see compassion, metta
lungs 121
 
magical powers 70
mana 215
mantra 186, 225, see also chanting
martial arts 136
material needs 112
meditation notebook 151, 159
meditation object 74, 158, 170, 173, 229,
see also concentration object, nimitta
mental health 69
poisons 191
metta 32, 35, 193, 209, 225, 263
Metta Bhavana 23ff, 88, 96, 104, 173,
192, 249
middha 252
mind 6, 169
mindfulness 27, 42ff, 64, 111, 114, 120,
178, 188, 2301
Mindfulness of Breathing 13ff, 76, 88,
104, 173
mindfulness of the body 122, 233,
see also bodily awareness
motivations 7
motive 110
mudita 199
Mudita Bhavana 199, 204
muduta 175
mystical experience 94
state 69
myth 83, 86, 94
 
namarupa 221
nature of existence 80
near enemy 193, 194, 197, 200, 202
neck 124, 130
negative emotion(s) 35, 154
negative self-view 154
neutral person 26, 30, 202
neutrality 202
nibbida 223
nidanas 219, 266
nimitta 746, 867,
see also meditation object
non-selfhood 93, 97, 216, 245
nonviolence 107
 
object see meditation~, concentration~
old age 221
one-pointedness 70, 72, 74
operational concepts 79
opposite quality see cultivating the ~
outside meditation 240, 247, 251, 257, 259
 
padding 133
pagunnata 175
pain (physical) 34, 46, 48, 52, 82,
129, 132, see also suffering
pamojja 219
passaddhi 71, 74, 175, 220
path 79, see also spiral
path of (ir)regular steps 98ff
pelvis 122, 129, 137
pema 194
personality 64, 69
pharana 204
phassa 221
physical exercise see exercise
training 135, 136
PIPER 148, 154
piti 220
pity 197
place 41, 112
plane of exceedingly subtle form 85, 86
of pure or subtle form 85, 86
of sensuous enjoyment 85, 86
pleasure 34, 46, 48, 51, 52, 71, 82,
see also enjoyment
pliancy 175
poisons 191
polar oppositions 169
positive emotion 33
mental states 73
posture 121ff, 148, 149, 249, 253
preliminary concentration 114
preparation 39, 42, 44, 54, 104, 105,
114, 148, 208, 229, 231
preparatory concentration 756
image 76
proficiency 175
progress 98
psychological types 248
psychophysical organism 220
puja 261
purification 74, 228
purpose 148, 150
 
radiation 204
rapture 71, 72, 220, see also bliss
rational guilt 108
reading 117, 187
realm of the gods 84
rebirth 264
receptivity 173
recognition 67
recollection of the Buddha 227
reflection 89, 172, 177188, 215, 225, 232,
see also considering
reflex image 76, 77, 264
reflexive awareness 27
consciousness 7
regular practice 378
rejoicing in merits 199
relaxation 140, 144, see also rest
religion 79, 95
religious conditioning 83, 94
resentment 200
resolve 148, 152, 258
rest 116, see also relaxation
restlessness 72, 111, 117
restlessness and anxiety 52, 125, 172, 248ff
restraint 241
retreats 39, 67, 111
Root Verses 209
rupa-dhyanas 85, 264
rupa-loka 77, 85, 86
 
sacca 107
saddha 219
sadhanas 225
salayatana 221
samadhi 76, 220, 265
samapatti 58, 65, 264
samatha 8897, 192, 216, 220, 225,
228, 230
sankharas 220
santutthi 107
sati 107
scientific world-view 83
second dhyana 68, 73
security 92
self 945
self-awareness 7
-confidence see confidence
-discipline 38
-discovery 118
-image 118, 123
-view 215
senses 28, 109, 218
sense desire 72, 238ff
experience 90
organs 214, 221
sentimental attachment 194
sex 1078
shock 254
shoulders 124, 130, 133
shrine 41
shunyata 97, 225
silence 116
simple consciousness 8
life 111
sin 108
sinking 165, 169, 170, 173
sitting faults 129, see also posture
Six Element Practice 211ff, 234
six sense organs 214, 221
skeleton 122
skilful 106
sky-like (mind) 55, 240, 246, 250, 256, 259
sleep 116, 257
sloth 72, 252
sloth and torpor 52, 54, 124, 171ff
slumping 129
solitary retreat 111ff
solitude 111, 188
soul 94
space element 214
speech 115, 247, see also communication
sphere of infinite consciousness 87
of infinite space 87
of neither identity 87
of no-thing-ness 87
spine 129, 130
spiral nidanas 2189, 223
spiritual development 81, 82, 84
friendship 79, 184
ignorance see ignorance
life 85
stimulation 109110
stool 127, 134
strain 98, 122, 123
strategy 150
stray thoughts 169, 172, see also thoughts
study 90, 118, 187
stupa 227, see also Six Element Practice
sub-personalities 64
subject-object distinction 96
subtle hindrances 165, 169
subtle sensation 18
suffering 195, 196, 244, see also pain
sukha 220
suppression 55, 240, 247, 250, 256, 259
surroundings 41
suta-maya panna 182
symbolism 225
symbols 186
sympathetic joy 199
 
t'ai chi 135, 138
tail-bone 129
tanha 221
Tara 224
teacher 260
technique 176
tension 123, 130, 166, see also anxiety
thighs 133, 137, 138, 141
thina 252
thinking 47, 252, see also thought
third dhyana 69, 74
thought(s) 47, 49, 50, 68, 71, 89, 119,
169, 172, 178, 264, see also thinking
thought-free awareness 50
Tibetan Book of the Dead 209
Tibetan Wheel of Life 83
timing 20, 42
tiredness see sloth, torpor
Titan 83
torpor 72, 252
transcendental consciousness 8
travel 116
triangle pose 141
trikaya doctrine 266
truth 107
 
uddhacca 248
ujjukata 175
unconscious mind 109
understanding 261
unsatisfactoriness 91, 92, 184,
see also dukkha
unskilful 106
upadana 221
upekkha 74, 201, 203, 204
Upekkha Bhavana 201
upright 175
 
vedana 221
vertical integration 65, 69, 74
vicarious enjoyment 200
vicikiccha 257
views 180
vimutti 223
vinnana 220
vipassana 8897, 176, 185, 192, 206,
215, 216, 220, 225, 230, 234
viraga 223
visionary experiences 65
visualization 75, 173, 224, 225, 227
vyapada 242
 
walking meditation 211, 231
water element 212
Wheel of Life 83, 84, see also nidanas
wisdom 69
withdrawal 223
workability 175
working 54, 147ff, 152, 155, 158,
see also antidotes
 
yoga 144